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从圣经看「灵」、「魂」、「体」  

2009-05-14 14:35:22|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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简介

原文圣经主要用来指「灵」、「魂」、「体」的字如下。 Strong's Dictionary之解释可参看附录,因为是字典,当然也包括了希腊人的解释。

┌──────┬─────────┬────────┐

│中 /英       │希伯来文         │希腊文         │

├──────┼─────────┼────────┤

│魂 soul       │ nephesh <05315>│ psuche <5590> |

│灵 spirit   │ ruwach <07307> │ pneuma <4151> │

│体 flesh    │ basar <01320>  │ sarx <4561>   │

│            │               │ soma <4983>   │

└──────┴─────────┴────────┘

我们一般上对「体」的认识较明确,而对「灵」与「魂」较陌生。实际上对後二者的定义、认知,及之间的关,於各思想体系都有显著的分歧。单单在希腊的众哲学思想就差异颇大,以致各家导出截然不同的结论。东西方的许多思想对「灵」与「魂」的认识与圣经所启示的又常有出入,因此这是很值得研究的。希腊的思想认为「魂」乃是人内中的部份,是他的位格。因此,「魂」就是指一个人;「我的魂」(“my soul”)就相等於「我」(“I”)。「魂」的特质包括行动、观察、感受,且是无实体的(亚里士多德,De Anima)。

  因此「魂」可以道德标准来衡量其道德力量。在人内中它有某种能力∶理会事物、管制行动、意志决定(柏拉图,Republic)。没有「魂」为基础,人的智慧与悟性均不能建立。亚里士多德认为「灵」(原文 pneuma具有「气息」之意)是从胚胎到成熟的个体整个过程中的组成力量,对人来说更是「魂」藉以控制「体」之动力。另外有些学者则致力於细分「魂」的各样能力,如毕达歌拉派(Pythagoreans)认为「魂」可分为三部份∶思想(logismos),意志(thymos),和欲望(epithymia)。真是众说纷纭,然而有两类的说法是值得注意的∶①认为「魂」是属物质的。

  以彼古罗派(Epicurus)认为「魂」有质量,是与热气混和的原子。他们相信无神主义才是正确的宇宙观,不相信有来生,且认为享乐是人生最高目标。他们不否认众神的存在,但认为众神不理凡间俗务,与人毫不相干。当然,他们不谈道德观念、良心问题,只要随欲而行,放心去做。

  斯多亚派(Stoic)认为「魂」是属物质的,它从一些物质中得到滋养,充澈人「体」。「魂」与「体」是联合的,而「魂」的实质却是「灵」。感情(pathe)是「魂」的最大敌人,要夺其自由。他们为「魂」定下了不自然且不合理的限制。此派主张克己制向善。有趣的是,此派的观念中「灵」取代了「魂」的功用,认为「灵」是给予感受、思想及言论的元素。

  以彼古罗派是纵主义者,斯多亚派是禁主义者。亦有人说以彼古罗派是哲学界中的撒都该人,斯多亚派是哲学界中的法利赛人,倒说得很贴切。这两派发起於 300 B.C.左右。保罗第二次道旅程来到雅典,就碰到从这两门对当时极具影响力的思想派别来的人(徒 17:18)。

  ②认为「魂」是非物质的,却可从人体中独立的分出来。

  这种思想的最佳代表人物可算是柏拉图。他认为「魂」是不灭的(immor-tal)。身「体」乃是「魂」的外衣(peribolon),是「魂」的禁锢。许多的希腊哲学观点中,认为灵魂居於人内中就如「机器中的魂魄」(theghost in the machine)。这样的信念是基於「魂」与「体」是全然无关的元素,且能独立存在。

  圣经提到人的被造时是这样记录的∶◆创 2:7耶和华神用地上的尘土造人、将生气吹在他鼻孔、他就成了有灵的活人、名叫亚当。

  Gen 2:7 And the LORD God formed man [of] the dust of the ground,and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and manbecame a living soul <05315>. (Authorised Version)★∶更准确的翻译应该是「...他就成了活的魂 ...」传统犹太人的观念中,「灵」、「魂」、「体」是不能分开的。当人死後,肉体归入尘土,灵魂则归入一个没有思想,没有喜乐,没有生气的静寂幽暗世界中,直等到神使其复活。今天的犹太拉比依然如此的深信。然而,希腊的众哲学思想於第一、二世纪对犹太教和基督教有莫大的影响力,不少异端因而产生。使徒写的书信就多处的看到对斯多亚派和诺斯底主义(Gnosticism)的驳斥。圣经要教导我们的究竟是什麽呢?(二)「灵」、「魂」、「体」的关在神学上对「灵」、「魂」、「体」的讨论主要分为「二分法」(dicho-tomy)、「三分法」(trichotomy)和「多分法」(multi-faceted)。最符合圣经的说法要归「二分法」。必须注意的是,这些教义与希腊哲学的二元分法是全然异的,因为圣经指出此三者至终还是融合而成为一个「人」的。下文将只讨论「二分法」(主要内容摘自「系统神学」,卷三,「人类论」,章 力生著,宣道出版社)。以下先例出三种说法的不同∶

 

教义

物质

非物质

二 分法 

Dichotomy

身体

 

三 分法

Trichotomy

身体 

多分法 

Multi-faceted 

身体 

灵 

心 

良知

心意

意志

(上表取自「穆迪神学手册」)

人类的本性乃是二重的∶一方面是物质的,另一方面是非物质的。人乃由身体(flesh)与心灵(soul or spirit)所构成。二分法是合乎圣经的道理,兹分述之∶①关於人类之创造创 2:7非说人已经是活的(肉体),然後上帝将生气吹在鼻孔使他成为有灵的活人,而是上帝先将生气吹在鼻孔,然後人才成为活的魂(living soul被译为「有灵的活人」)。②关於人类的心灵,有别於上帝的灵,又不同於人的身体──乃为灵的住所

◆民 16:22摩西、亚伦就俯伏在地、说、神、万人之灵的神阿、一人犯罪、你就要向全会众发怒麽。

  Nu 16:22 And they fell upon their faces, and said, O God, theGod of the spirits <07307> of all flesh <01320>, shall oneman sin, and wilt thou be wroth with all the congregation?

◆亚 12:1耶和华论以色列的默示。铺张诸天、建立地基、造人面之灵的耶和华说.Zec 12:1 The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, saiththe LORD, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeththe foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit <07307>of man within him.

◆林前 2:11除了在人头的灵、谁知道人的事.像这样、除了神的灵、也没有人知道神的事。

  1Co 2:11 For what man knoweth the things of a man, save thespirit <4151> of man which is in him? even so the thingsof God knoweth no man, but the Spirit <4151> of God.

从这些经文看来,可知人的灵魂有别於神的灵。因此诺斯底主义主张人的「灵」与上帝的「灵」本质上相同,是与圣经的说法全然相违的。再从下列的经文又可看出灵魂与所住的身体不同。

  ★∶诺斯底主义认为得到「真知识」(gnosis)就认识了自己内中昏睡的「灵」,然後把这与上帝同等的「灵」释放出来。这「真知识」是不能通过教导或理智的途径获得的,它必须用一些神秘性的自我发现途径(如冥想)才能获得启迪,因此以其说是「真知识」不如说是「神秘知识」。过去我们对诺斯底主义的认识主要都是从早期教父们对它的批判所留下之文献获得的。直到 1945年左右,当一整套诺斯底主义者他们本身所写的文献、经典在埃及被发现後,我们才真正有机会进一步的解这个学说与信仰。这主义与今天的 New Age思想就如同出一炉,在美国甚至有人引用上述的经典来传递 New Age的讯息,所以 New Age可说是诺斯底主义的延续发展。

  ◆创35:18他将近於死、灵魂要走的时候、就给他儿子起名叫便俄尼、他父亲却给他起名叫便雅悯。

  Gen 35:18 And it came to pass, as her soul <05315> was indeparting, (for she died) that she called his name Benoni:but his father called him Benjamin.★∶「灵魂」原文是「魂」。

  ◆王上 17:21以利亚三次伏在孩子的身上、求告耶和华、说、耶和华我的神阿、求你使这孩子的灵魂、仍入他的身体。

  1Kings 17:21 And he stretched himself upon the child threetimes, and cried unto the LORD, and said, O LORD my God, Ipray thee, let this child's soul <05315> come into him again.★∶「灵魂」原文是「魂」。

  ◆传 12:7尘土仍归於地、灵仍归於赐灵的神。

  Ec 12:7 Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: andthe spirit <07307> shall return unto God who gave it.◆路 8:54耶稣拉著他的手、呼叫说、女儿、起来罢。

  ◆路 8:55他的灵魂便回来、他就立刻起来了.耶稣吩咐给他东西。

  Lu 8:54 And he put them all out, and took her by the hand, andcalled, saying, Maid, arise.Lu 8:55 And her spirit <4151> came again, and she arosestraightway: and he commanded to give her meat.★∶「灵魂」原文是「灵」。

  ◆雅 2:26身体没有灵魂是死的、信心没有行为也是死的。

  Jas 2:26 For as the body <4983> without the spirit <4151> isdead, so faith without works is dead also.★∶「灵魂」原文是「灵」。

  从上述第一类的经文看来我们便应该驳斥泛神论;从第二类的经文来看,便应该驳斥唯物论。

  ③关於「灵」与「魂」的互用

◆创 41:8到了早晨、法老心不安、就差人召了埃及所有的术士和博士来.法老就把所作的梦告诉他们、却没有人能给法老圆解。

  Gen 41:8 And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit<07307> was troubled and he sent and called for all themagicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: andPharaoh told them his dream; but [there was] none thatcould interpret them unto Pharaoh.★∶「心」原文是「灵」。

  ◆诗 42:6我的神阿、我的心在我面忧闷.所以我从约但地、从黑门岭、从米萨山、记念你。

  Ps 42:6 O my God, my soul <05315> is cast down within me:therefore will I remember thee from the land of Jordan, andof the Hermonites, from the hill Mizar.★∶「心」原文是「魂」。

  ◆太20:28正如人子来、不是要受人的服事、乃是要服事人.且要命、作多人的赎价。

  Mat 20:28 Even as the Son of man came not to be ministeredunto, but to minister, and to give his life <5590> a ransomfor many.★∶「命」原文是「魂」。

  ◆太27:50耶稣又大声喊叫、气就断了。

  Mat 27:50 Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice,yielded up the ghost <4151>.★∶「气」原文是「灵」。

  ◆约12:27我现在心忧愁、我说甚麽好呢.父阿、救我脱离这时候.但我原是为这时候来的。

  Jn 12:27 Now is my soul <5590> troubled; and what shall I say?★∶「心」原文是「魂」。

  ◆约13:21耶稣说了这话、心忧愁、就明说、我实实在在的告诉你们、你们中间有一个人要卖我了。

  Jn 13:21 When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit<4151>, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say untoyou, that one of you shall betray me.★∶「心」原文是「灵」。

  ◆来12:23有名录在天上诸长子之会所共聚的总会、有审判众人的神、和被成全之义人的灵魂、Heb 12:23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn,which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all,and to the spirits <4151> of just men made perfect,★∶「灵魂」原文是「灵」。

  ◆启 6:9揭开第五印的时候、我看见在祭坛底下、有为神的道、为作见证、被杀之人的灵魂.Rev 6:9 And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under thealtar the souls <5590> of them that were slain for the wordof God, and for the testimony which they held:★∶「灵魂」原文是「魂」。

  ④身体与灵魂(soul or spirit)联用,便构成全人

◆太10:28那杀身体不能杀灵魂的、不要怕他们.惟有能把身体和灵魂都灭在地狱的、正要伯他。

  Mat 10:28 And fear not them which kill the body <4983>, but arenot able to kill the soul <5590>: but rather fear him whichis able to destroy both soul <5590> and body <4983> in hell.

◆约三 2亲爱的兄弟阿、我愿你凡事兴盛、身体健壮、正如你的灵魂兴盛一样。

  3 Jn 1:2 Beloved, I wish above all things that thou mayestprosper and be in health, even as thy soul <5590> prospereth.

如前文所述,这二分法与希腊哲学的「行论」(Parallelism)不同。後者虽然认为人有两种实质,但两者行,不构成一个机体。这种学说悖乎圣经的真理。人类虽有两种不同的实质,但不因此就有两个主体。人每一 个动作,乃是其全人的作为。一言以蔽之,灵魂与身体乃是联为一体的。譬如犯罪,不能说仅是「灵」犯罪,而是整个人犯罪(审判时,上帝不只是审判人的灵魂,而是先让人──括灵魂与身体──复活後再审判其完全的人,约5:29);不仅是身体死亡,乃是整个人死亡;不仅是灵魂得救,而是整个人,身体与灵魂都在主耶稣基督得救。在哲学方面,「魂」(soul)是指与兽类有关的人之心灵元素而言;「灵」(spirit)是同样属灵的元素,却是指较高的属灵世界和上帝而言。然而,在原文圣经,这两个字却有不同的用法∶无论是「灵」(ruwach-pneuma)或是「魂」(nephesh-psuche),都可以用来指人类或兽类。例如

◆传 3:21谁知道人的灵是往上升、兽的魂是下入地呢。

  Ecc 3:21 Who knoweth the spirit <07307> of man that goethupward, and the spirit <07307> of the beast that goethdownward to the earth?★∶原文只用了「灵」这个字。

  ◆启 16:3第二位天使把碗倒在海里,海就变成血,好象死人的血,海中的活物都死了。 

Rev 16:3 And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea;and it became as the blood of a dead [man]: and everyliving soul <5590> died in the sea.★∶「海中的活物」原文是「海中活的魂」,与创 2:7相似。

  「灵」与「魂」二词的分别,照圣经来讲,「灵」乃是人的属灵元素,乃是管制身体行动之生命的性能,「魂」也是属灵元素,乃为一人行动的主体。

  神学家霍治(A. A. Hodge)说∶「魂是灵的化身,乃是有肉身的灵。因此我们绝不能说天使有魂。天使乃纯粹是灵。」我们可以说「灵」与「魂」乃为同一个属灵的实质,仅为「一物之两面」,无实质的不同。人性的要素中一为身体,另一为灵魂。只有在这二者的融合下才是完全的人。

  以下三处经文似乎不同意二分法,尤其後二者更常被用来反驳二分法∶①林前 15:45经上也是这样记著说、『首先的人亚当、成了有灵的活人。』[灵或作血气]末後的亚当、成了叫人活的灵。

  1Co 15:45 And so it is written, The first man Adam was made aliving soul <5590>; the last Adam [was made] a quickeningspirit <4151>.★以上引的是英文 AKJV版本。此处 Darby的翻译很好∶①林前 15:45经上也是这样记著说、『首先的人亚当、成了有灵的活人。

  1Co 15:45 Thus also it is written, The first Adam became aliving soul <5590>; the last Adam a quickening spirit<4151>.quickening≡ life-giving直翻的话就是「....赐生命的灵」。和合本圣经翻译得也不错。从首先的亚当而出者是属肉体的,必定要死;从末後的亚当而出者是属灵性的,必得永生。这是本节的重点,可能因这关,保罗用了 soul与 spirit两个字。从另一方面来看,亚当是人,耶稣也是人,因此可说是两字互用的例子。另外,由於这节提到神的救赎,要表明末後亚当的神性,这样的例子该算是特别的。

  ②帖前 5:23愿赐平安的神、亲自使你们全然成圣.又愿你们的灵、与魂、与身子、得蒙保守、在我主耶稣基督降临的时候、完全无可指摘。

  1Th 5:23 And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and [Ipray God] your whole spirit <4151> and soul <5590> and body<4983> be preserved blameless unto the coming of our LordJesus Christ.★这节的重点在於 wholly「全然」。 be preserved blameless或作 bepreserved entire。保罗用了 singular verb和 singular adjective,因此保罗的观念,「灵」、「魂」、「体」是单独一体的。另外,保罗在罗 8:10;林前 5:5; 7:34;林後 7:1;弗 2:3;西 2:5,都仅提到「肉体与心灵」、「身体与灵魂」、「肉体与心」、「身子与心」等等,而不同时提到「灵」、「魂」、「体」。

  ③来 4:12神的道是活泼的、是有功效的、比一切两刃的剑更快、甚至魂与灵、骨节与骨髓、都能刺入剖开、连心中的思念和主意、都能辨明。

  Heb 4:12 For the word of God [is] quick, and powerful, andsharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to thedividing asunder of soul <5590> and spirit <4151>, and ofthe joints and marrow, and [is] a discerner of the thoughtsand intents of the heart.★这节的重点在於上帝的道的犀利、那分辨的功效,能把那种难以区分或不能区分的东西分开。先看看「思念」与「主意」∶我从思想产生出主意,我的主意包含我的思想。请问∶这思想与主意要如何的切分为独立的呢?这样说来,这节反倒说明「灵」与「魂」是融合为一的。

  ********************************************************************************附录∶ Strong's Dictionary05315 nephesh{neh'-fesh}from 05314; TWOT - 1395a; n fAV - soul 475, life 117, person 29, mind 15, heart 15, creature 9,body 8, himself 8, yourselves 6, dead 5, will 4, desire 4, man 3,themselves 3, any 3, appetite 2, misc 47; 7531) soul, self, life, creature, person, appetite, mind, living being,desire, emotion, passion1a) that which breathes, the breathing substance or being, soul, theinner being of man1b) living being1c) living being (with life in the blood)1d) the man himself, self, person or individual1e) seat of the appetites1f) seat of emotions and passions1g) activity of mind1g1) dubious1h) activity of the will1h1) dubious1i) activity of the character1i1) dubious5590 psuche{psoo-khay'}from 5594; TDNT - 9:608,1342; n fAV - soul 58, life 40, mind 3, heart 1, heartily + 1537 1, not tr 2; 1051) breath1a) the breath of life1a1) the vital force which animates the body and shows itselfin breathing1a1a) of animals1a12) of men1b) life1c) that in which there is life1c1) a living being, a living soul2) the soul2a) the seat of the feelings, desires, affections, aversions(our heart, soul etc.)2b) the (human) soul in so far as it is constituted that bythe right use of the aids offered it by God it can attainits highest end and secure eternal blessedness, the soulregarded as a moral being designed for everlasting life2c) the soul as an essence which differs from the body and is notdissolved by death (distinguished from other parts of the body)07307 ruwach{roo'-akh}from 07306; TWOT - 2131a; n fAV - Spirit or spirit 232, wind 92, breath 27, side 6, mind 5, blast 4,vain 2, air 1, anger 1, cool 1, courage 1, misc 6; 3781) wind, breath, mind, spirit1a) breath1b) wind1b1) of heaven1b2) quarter (of wind), side1b3) breath of air1b4) air, gas1b5) vain, empty thing1c) spirit (as that which breathes quickly in animation or agitation)1c1) spirit, animation, vivacity, vigour1c2)

courage1c3) temper, anger1c4) impatience, patience1c5) spirit, disposition (as troubled, bitter, discontented)1c6) disposition (of various kinds), unaccountable oruncontrollable impulse1c7) prophetic spirit1d) spirit (of the living, breathing being in man and animals)1d1) as gift, preserved by God, God's spirit, departing atdeath, disembodied being1e) spirit (as seat of emotion)1e1) desire1e2) sorrow, trouble1f) spirit1f1) as seat or organ of mental acts1f2) rarely of the will1f3) as seat especially of moral character1g) Spirit of God, the third person of the triune God, the HolySpirit, coequal, coeternal with the Father and the Son1g1) as inspiring ecstatic state of prophecy1g2) as impelling prophet to utter instruction or warning1g3) imparting warlike energy and executive and administrativepower1g4) as endowing men with various gifts1g5) as energy of life1g6) as manifest in the Shekinah glory1g7) never referred to as a depersonalised force4151 pneuma{pnyoo'-mah}from 4154; TDNT - 6:332,876; n nAV - Spirit 111, Holy Ghost 89, Spirit (of God) 13,Spirit (of the Lord) 5, (My) Spirit 3, Spirit (of truth) 3,Spirit (of Christ) 2, human (spirit) 49, (evil) spirit 47,spirit (general) 26, spirit 8, (Jesus' own) spirit 6,(Jesus' own) ghost 2, misc 21; 3851) the third person of the triune God, the Holy Spirit, coequal,coeternal with the Father and the Son1a) sometimes referred to in a way which emphasises hispersonality and character (the Holy Spirit)1b) sometimes referred to in a way which emphasises his workand power (the Spirit of Truth)1c) never referred to as a depersonalised force2) the spirit, i.e. the vital principal by which the body is animated2a) the rational spirit, the power by which the human being feels,thinks, decides2b) the soul3) a spirit, i.e. a simple essence, devoid of all or at leastall grosser matter, and possessed of the power of knowing,desiring, deciding, and acting3a) a life giving spirit3b) a human soul that has left the body3c) a spirit higher tha

n man but lower than God, i.e. an angel3c1) used of demons, or evil spirits, who were conceivedas inhabiting the bodies of men3c2) the spiritual nature of Christ, higher than the highestangels and equal to God, the divine nature of Christ4) the disposition or influence which fills and governs the soulof any one4a) the efficient source of any power, affection, emotion, desire, etc.5) a movement of air (a gentle blast)5a) of the wind, hence the wind itself5b) breath of nostrils or mouth01320 basar{baw-sawr'}from 01319; TWOT - 291a; n mAV - flesh 256, body 2, fatfleshed + 01277 2, leanfleshed + 01851 2,kin 2, leanfleshed + 07534 1, mankind + 0376 1, myself 1,nakedness 1, skin 1; 2691) flesh1a) of the body1a1) of humans1a2) of animals1b) the body itself1c) male organ of generation (euphemism)1d) kindred, blood-relations1e) flesh as frail or erring (man against God)1f) all living things1g) animals1h) mankind4561 sarx{sarx}probably from the base of 4563; TDNT - 7:98,1000; n fAV - flesh 147, carnal 2, carnally minded + 5427 1, fleshly 1; 1511) flesh (the soft substance of the living body, which coversthe bones and is permeated with blood) of both man and beasts2) the body2a) the body of a man2b) used of natural or physical origin, generation orrelationship2b1) born of natural generation2c) the sensuous nature of man, "the animal nature"2c1) without any suggestion of depravity2c2) the animal nature with cravings which incite to sin2c3) the physical nature of man as subject to suffering3) a living creature (because possessed of a body of flesh)whether man or beast4) the flesh, denotes mere human nature, the earthly nature of man apartfrom divine influence, and therefore prone to sin and opposed to God4983 soma{so'-mah}from 4982; TDNT - 7:1024,1140; n nAV - body 144, bodily 1, slave 1; 1461) the body both of men or animals1a) a dead body or corpse1b) the living body1b1) of animals2) the bodies of planets and of stars (heavenly bodies)3) is used of a (large or small) number of

men closely united into onesociety, or family as it were; a social, ethical, mystical body3a) so in the NT of the church4) that which casts a shadow as distinguished from the shadow itself03335 yatsar{yaw-tsar'}probably identical with 03334 (through the squeezing into shape),([compare 03331]); TWOT - 898; vAV - form 26, potter 17, fashion 5, maker 4, frame 3, make 3,former 2, earthen 1, purposed 1; 621) to form, fashion, frame1a) (Qal) to form, fashion1a1) of human activity1a2) of divine activity1a2a) of creation1a2a1) of original creation1a2a2) of individuals at conception1a2a3) of Israel as a people1a2b) to frame, pre-ordain, plan (fig. of divine)purpose of a situation)1b) (Niphal) to be formed, be created1c) (Pual) to be predetermined, be pre-ordained1d) (Hophal) to be formed--

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